UNITED STATES

Smithsonian. See below.

Smithsonian. See below.

Lemelson Center for the Study of Science and Innovation: Medicine, Health and Life Sciences tags.
Washington DC USA

Includes many items in blog, podcast and textual archive, such as podcasts with Dr. Jarvik when he donated his work on the artificial heart and an historian's tour of the Minnesota 'Medical Alley'.

 
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Mutter Museum 
Philadelphia USA

"America’s finest museum of medical history, the Mütter Museum displays its beautifully preserved collections of anatomical specimens, models, and medical instruments in a 19th-century “cabinet museum” setting."

Smithsonian. See below.

Smithsonian. See below.

The National Museum of American History
Division of Medicine and Science.
Washington DC USA

Virtual Exhibitions
Project Hope, What Ever Happened to Polio, HIV and AIDS 30 years ago, The Diary of a Civil War Nurse.
Collections
Balm of America: Patent Medicine Collection, Bristol-Myers Squibb European Apothecary, Insulin and Diabetes Management, Oral Contraceptives.
Blog Post in 'Medicine & Science'

 

National Museum of Civil War Medicine
Frederick MD USA

Follow in the footsteps of soldiers and surgeons to discover the harsh conditions, personal sacrifices, and brilliant innovations of Civil War medicine, innovations that continue to save lives today.

 

National Museum of Health and Medicine
Silver Spring MD USA

The National Museum of Health and Medicine was established during the Civil War as the Army Medical Museum, a center for the collection of specimens for research in military medicine and surgery. 

 

Smithsonian. Search "Medicine"
Washington DC USA

Over 97,000 results: Images (> 11,000), Exhibitions (10), Stories (156), Video (409), Our Websites (7,350), Other (> 70,000).

 

UNITED KINGDOM

Old Operating Theatre Museum
London England UK

Europe’s oldest surviving operating theatre was in the attic of an 18th century church, also used by apothecaries to store herb for making medicines.

 

Surgeon's Hall Museums
Edinburgh Scotland UK

... owned by The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and consists of the Wohl Pathology Museum, the History of Surgery Museum and The Dental Collection. [Wikipedia]