During the two days of fighting at the Civil War battle of Shiloh (1862) the wounded numbered over 16,000. Many were immobilized in the mud of the rain-soaked fields situated between river and swamp. Their wounds were easily contaminated. And some of these wounds, by many accounts, began to glow.
In our post on medical philately we made reference to Elizabeth Blackwell, the first female physician in America, an 1849 graduate of Geneva Medical College in upstate New York. She was soon followed by Elizabeth Garrett Anderson in the United Kingdom. Both are remarkable women, but we wanted to reach back further to find the first in the world.
Postage stamps may seem a trivial medium for medical history, but it is actually quite interesting. Medical philately is both engaging as commemorative art and sociologically informative about the public interest in this or that health topic. While individual stamps are ephemeral, the stories they depict are enduring.
The skull has long been used to represent reflection, death or vanity. Consider for example the graveyard scene in Hamlet (Alas, poor Yorick), the raucous celebrations of Dia de los Muertos, or Gilbert’s eerie drawing “All is Vanity”. We present here a small subset of this form of symbolic art—the smoking skull.
Robert Thom was an illustrator who brought a Rockwellian sensitivity to scenes from the history medicine and pharmacy. The two thematic collections were commissioned by Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Company.
The controversy over Doctor Marion Sims, “The Father of American Gynecology” is now at a fever pitch. His statue on the edge of Central Park gazes across 5th Avenue, right at the New York Academy of Medicine. The Mayor of New York is considering having it removed. The New York Academy of Medicine responded with an open letter, saying (paraphrasing here): “…fine with us, not on our property anyway.” What did Dr. Sims do to deserve such enmity?
In 1984 Jeffrey Hall and Michael rosbash, two biologists at Brandeis University, west of Boston, pioneered the science of biorhythms by interrogating fruit flies about what makes them ‘tick’. For the next thirty-three years the pendulum of deliberation at the Carolinska institute swung to and fro, sweeping Nobel Laureates on and off the stage in Stockholm. This year, the time has come for Hall and rosbash, now septuagenarians, to be joined on stage by their only slightly younger colleague, Michael Young, to receive the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Just as blood circulates through the body sustaining life, its symbolism circulates through the psyche, signifying vitalism, kindredness—and magic. Christian beliefs are indelibly marked by the ‘blood sacrifice’ of Christ, memorialized by reliquary, the ritual of transubstantiation and bleeding stigmata. Miracles or not, some such phenomena may be mediated by thixotropy, S. marcescens and carbolic acid.
The observable features of Malaria have been known to mankind since 2700BC. This mysterious condition, once thought to arise from ‘bad air’, turned cities into graveyards and vanquished armies. The great apes are highly susceptible to the protozoan infection that causes malaria. It was up to Homo sapiens to do something about it—first evolving a biologic defense, then going on offense with chemicals. We may even ‘go nuclear’ with genetic engineering.
A doctor today may refer to their paper diploma as a “sheepskin”, perhaps unaware that this refers to parchment. In ancient Egypt such a diploma would have been written on papyrus, also derived from a plant, in this case the pith of Cyperus papyrus. Papyrus was abundant in the wetlands along the Nile Delta and was used for 4000 years to make boats, baskets, sandals—and for archiving the collective knowledge of a civilization, including several millennia of empiric medicine.